Covid-19 vaccine race in the world

Avatar of Nick John By Nick John Dec6,2023 #Covid #vaccine
Covid-19 vaccine race in the world 2
Covid-19 vaccine race in the world 2

On November 18, Pfizer, an American pharmaceutical company, and its partner BioNTech, a German research company, were the first in the world to publish all late-stage Covid-19 vaccine trial data.

Britain was the first country in the world to authorize emergency use of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine on December 3, followed by Canada on December 9 and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on December 11.

A nurse holds a vial of Pfizer/BioNTech’s Covid-19 vaccine at University Hospital on the first day of the large-scale vaccination program in the UK on December 8.

The European Medicines Agency (EMA) will complete the evaluation process on December 29, while India is accelerating the evaluation process.

American pharmaceutical company Moderna retained second place after releasing a full analysis of late-stage trial data on November 30, showing that the vaccine is 94.1% effective.

In addition, Britain’s AstraZeneca is also applying for approval of its vaccine after releasing preliminary final-stage trial data on November 23.

However, it is unclear how regulators will deal with different doses in vaccine effectiveness data.

Johnson & Johnson, an American pharmaceutical manufacturer, plans to release trial data this year or early 2021 with the goal of receiving FDA approval in February if it proves effective.

US company Novavax is conducting a late-stage trial in the UK and expects to collect full data in the first quarter of 2021. The company plans to begin large-scale trials in the US this month.

Sanofi of France and GlazoSmithLkine of England on December 11 announced the postponement of vaccine launch.

Companies often test their vaccines with a placebo, usually a saline solution, on healthy volunteers to see if the rate of nCoV infection in those vaccinated is significantly lower than in those who receive a dummy injection.

The trial is based on subjects naturally infected with nCoV, so how long it takes to get results largely depends on how quickly the virus spreads in the places where the trial is being conducted.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), vaccines must demonstrate at least 70% effectiveness.

While Pfizer’s vaccine is the first to be widely deployed following the release of full phase three trial data, Russia and China inoculated their citizens months ago, when several vaccines were in development.

Russia said on November 24 that the Sputnik V vaccine developed by the Gamaleya Institute showed 91.4% effectiveness according to preliminary data from late-stage testing.

AstraZeneca said on December 11 that it would combine its vaccine testing with one of the two components of Russia’s Sputnik V vaccine to improve the effectiveness of the vaccine they developed with Oxford University.

China launched an emergency use program in July for people working in essential occupations and at high risk of infection.

Sionovac said on November 18 that phase two trial results showed that its CoronaVac vaccine triggered a rapid immune response and that preliminary data on the final phase trial could be published this year.

The Butantan Institute, Brazil’s biomedical center, is producing CoronaVac and aims to produce one million doses per day before launching the vaccine campaign at the end of January.

The United Arab Emirates announced on December 9 that one of CNBG’s vaccines was 86% effective based on final-stage preliminary results in this Gulf country.

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